Archive for the ‘African slaves’ Category

Anarcho-Historian Lesson #15: Europe’s Gift to World Civilization, or The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

Posted: January 10, 2016 in Africa, African slavery, African slavery and genocide in the Americas, African slaves, Africans, Americas, aristo-parasites, aristocracy, Atlantic African Slave Trade, brutality, capitalism, captured native slaves, castes, categories of life, Christendom, Christianity, Church hierarchy, class, class climbers, class conflict, colonial administrators, colonial elites, colonial empires, colonialism, common lands, communal property, companies, conquest, control, convict slaves, corporate institutions, corporate rights, courtiers, criminality, crusades, cultural mix, culture, cycle of life, death, deceit, diseases, divisi et vincere, East Indies, elites, emerging markets, empire, empires, enslavement, eternal war, Europe, European colonial powers, European history, evil, export crop plantations, extermination, extinction, extremism, farmers, farming families, Fascism, Global Monopoly Capitalism, Great Amerikan Holocaust, guilt, history, Holy Crusades, Holy Orders, honor, human body, human history, humanity, ideologies, incinerator capitalism, indentured servitude, individual rights, inheritance capital, investors, Judeo-Christian Monotheist cult, kidnapping, knights, labor, land robbery, landed aristocracy, legal conquest system, legal courts, legal crime, legal extortion rackets, legal fictions, legal frauds, legal privileges, legal theft, liquidation, lower classes, lumpens, mass extermination, mass murder, Medieval Europe, mental infections, Mercantile Capitalism, mercenary armies, military religious orders, murder, noble titles, nobles, nobles of the sword, opening of lands, ownership of land, paganism, pagans, peasants, personal property, plunder, political enemies, political-economic elites, private property, production cycles, professional armies, profit, property, property rights, protection money, punishments, race, racial mixes, racialism, religious conversion, religious ideology, rent schemes, rents, repression, revenge, rights of conquest, robbery, royal authority, royal powers, royalty, savage capitalism, savagery, scams, schemes, slave trading, slave trading-raiding empires, slavery, slaves, social classes, social control, social estates, social parasites, stealing lands, struggle, subject populations, suffering, sugar slave plantations, survival, taxes, the Church institution, the Curia, the Earth, the family, the First Estate, the Mafia, the Papal States, the State, tithe taxes, torture techniques, vengeance, venture capital, violence, war, war against the human body, warfare, West Indies, work, world history, zealotry, zoological racial terms
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Throughout human history, Evil has often emanated from the comforting lights of deceit.

For around 500 years, starting in the mid to late 1400s A.D., one peculiar social class, coming out of one particular continent, has attacked, invaded, plundered, tortured, enslaved, and murdered the mysterious magic behind Earth’s existence.

This estate of people were the class climbing ambitious ones who wanted noble titles with the rights that came from such titles. They birthed from the continent of Europe, which was a civilization that sanctified the slothful, lazy and parasitical, and yet at the same time, formulated the heinous lie of the ‘hard work ethic.’

Ultimately, this social class of deceivers invented the most evil ideology in human history: racialism, all in order to maintain their wicked clutch of power. Europe was a strange civilization indeed. Who, what, when, where, why and how could describe such a bizarre continent?

The first monstrosity that poisoned the Soul of Europe was the Judeo-Christian Monotheist Cult. This poisoning did not begin with Constantine’s acceptance of the Christian religion into the Greater Roman Pantheon of Cults during the 4th Century A.D. Most of Europe’s culture was pagan until well into the 7th Century A.D.

In the north of Europe, modern Scandinavia, northern Germany, and in eastern Europe, mostly around the Slavic, Baltic and Hun lands, such as Lithuania, Finland, Eastern Poland and Southern Russia; most of Hungary, Dalmatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, a greater part of Romania, most of the people in those nations retained their old European pagan traditions.

By the 15th century, almost all of Europe adhered to some form of Christianity mixed with ancient pagan concepts, whether Celt, Roman, Greek, German or Slav, or all the above mixed together for heightened effect. Bad historians love to praise such a cultural mix as the birth of medieval civilization.

The various medieval regions represented the Byzantine sphere of influence, the Holy Roman Empire sphere of influence, the Frankish imperial domains, the Muslim Caliphate of Spain, or around the Maritime slave trading-raiding empires of the Normans, Genoans, Pisans and Venetians, the Mamelukes of Egypt, and the Muslim Sublime Ports in the Maghreb.

Medieval Europe did have its enchanted sides, especially in the heroic epics of just kings and noble knights; however, the Judeo-Christian monotheist ideology began to rot the thinking of many Europeans. Unlike the heroic gods of the Celts, Romans and Germans, the Christian God hung on a wooden torture device, the Cross. And yet, the Crucifixion torture device gave its God supreme powers.

The power of the Cross signified the mental anguish of vengeance with the fury of extreme violence for the Murder of God, or the Grand Deicide. The story also meant the conquering of bodily sin and the guilt of confession, according to the mad monks, often using violent methods, such as chains, whips and brutal disciplines.

The further struggle entailed the fight against the Evil One, or Satan, and his demonic kingdom. Ultimate Justice implied the Final Judgment of the Victorious Sacrificial God who will punish the Evil Apostates that refused to submit to his power. All of the non-believers will end up in the Lake of Fire and Brimstone, or Hell – tortured for all Eternity. Not even Hitler or Stalin could compare to this vengeful and violent God.

Christianity’s religious-ideological position has centered on a movement for revenge, extremism through faith, and the encouragement of suffering, meaning physical and mental suffering heightened together – all for the conquering of sin and evil through the example of Christ and his kingdom of the Saints.

This ideology of vengeance and zealotry explains its penchant for extreme violence, only found in the History of Christianity, such as Crusades, Papal Pornocracies, Inquisitions, Religious Wars, Witch Burnings, Ideological support for the African slave exterminations, Political alliances with Fascists, Gunmen attacking Women’s health clinics, and other fanatical acts of mass murder.

This ideology also encourages mental diseases and sexual perversions, such as madness, pederasty, sexual molestation and pedophilia, due to its obsessions with mental and bodily repressions versus sin, vices, doubts, backsliding and evil. Mental repression, guilt and anguish only cause further obsessions on the prohibited evil acts and thoughts.

In sum, the ideological-religious detritus of extremism, violent brutality and the mind-body repression-madness-perversion, infected European medieval culture. Instead of just killing one’s enemies, one had to develop the technologies of torturing the physical body in order to make the hated ones suffer even more horribly.

The World History of Torture is a nasty section of Humanity’s vices. But the European Medieval period is especially sick in regards to its favorite tortures and murders against the Human Body.

The medieval State encouraged the legal form of torture and murder, but in copying the Church and the State, ancient European families introduced the brutal disciplinary procedures of beatings and punishments. There were also the common torturers who used hand weapons, usually canes, whips and chains. Fathers, both secular and religious, often utilized such torture methods against adepts, wives, children and servant slaves.

Once the father uses those brute methods in educating his children, the children become permanently damaged and they often fight back through their own modes of violence and the abuse of intoxicants, or simply self-medication – or even using both forms together.

During the 15th century, when European class climbers began to fix their gazes at the greater Earth, they carried over their mental sufferings from those extremist ideologies. This ideological mix-up included the extermination of pagan-non-Christian religions for the one true faith, punishments against the human body in relation to nakedness, normal sexual diversity, or sodomy. The Triumph of the Judeo-Christian Cult was so thorough that most Europeans referred to their hodgepodge of lands as a united Christendom, well into the middle of the 1700’s.

While the Judeo-Christian ideology twisted the thinking of Medieval Christendom, Europeans also began to admire the lifestyle of the Christian corporate institution, The Church. The priests received the taxes, or tithes, from the peasants, and from there, they had to kick up the tithes to the Hierarchy.

The bishops, or captains of the region, lived like the Dux, or dukes, the knighted regional commanders. From the Bishops, they had to kick up the money to the Papal Court, the Pope and his consiglieri, or advisers, or as they used the term, La Curia, which included selected Cardinals who maintained each Congregation.

No king, nor emperor lived as sumptuously as the Papal Court. The most important congregations, or administrations in the Papacy, represented the Treasury, the Holy Office of the Inquisition, the Bulls, or funding, of the Holy Crusades, and the Papal mercenary armies, or condottieri.

Jealous of the pride, sloth, gluttony, luxury, avarice, legal violence and envious nature of the Papal Court in Rome, the secular powers had to copy such vileness. The Church was also the greatest land robber in world history. Unlike the Papal States, The Mosque in Medieval Islamic Civilization did not have a separate corporate identity, nor did it have a clergy possessing special powers with autonomous legal privileges.

The Church transformed into the first corporate institution to putrefy ancient Germanic and Roman Law in demanding both corporate legal rights and individual rights, through the legal theft of common lands; while at the same time, the Church also had another set of rights, meaning the rights of State, due to governing a vast territory in central Italy, called the Papal States. There were also the numerous religious orders inside the Church, who not only possessed the corporate rights of the First Estate, but also held the corporate rights of an organized, military-like, corporate religious order, such as the Franciscans and Dominicans.

Again, the secular elites, or knights without noble titles, copied their religious overlords in stealing lands from surrounding communities through their own, legal rights of conquest.

The Church seconded such pronouncements through encouraging a continuous Crusade for the conversion of souls. The Spanish first used this method in Al-Andalus, southern Spain. In the Americas, Spanish and the Portuguese knights again used the exact same methods in exterminating the native nations and then stealing their lands.

Even the Church’s religious enemies used such tactics, the Orthodox Church in league with the Tsars copied such sinister techniques during Russia’s wars both against the Catholic Polish and Germans, and against the Muslim Khanates, or Tatars. The Protestant English Knights-Lords, in league with the Established Church, used kindred procedures against Britain’s peasants, through the Enclosure Acts, and later against the Irish Catholics in Ulster – and even later, against the Highlander Clans in Scotland. The biggest supporters of Luther’s Protestant Crusade were the class climbing knights that plagued the German States of the Holy Roman Empire.

This ingenious legal conquest system allowed knights without noble titles to conquer the lands of the Enemy, and thereby receive noble titles for meritorious services, later becoming Nobles of the Sword, or in French, noblesse d’épée, Their medieval legal privileges did not stop with such noble titles however.

Due to the historical writings about the Noble Spartans who defended the Greek cities from the Persian Asiatic Horde, once a knight received his noble title from royalty, the man could not do any laborious work with the hands – or he would lose his honor.

The ‘new man’ then changed his name to the title, just like a person received a new name after taking Holy Orders, in becoming a priest, monk or nun. The nobles of the sword transformed into loyal allies of the throne becoming token administrators of the conquered lands, called the landed aristocracy.  

The landed aristocracy had to fight for the King when given orders. But as royal powers transcended into colonial empires, and as more European kings used mercenary forces, and recruited so-called professional armies from the ranks of the artisan and farmer classes, and even mixed racial castes, the nobles of the sword also changed their elite dimensions.

Many trained soldiers, or favorites, moved into the royal courts and lived as courtiers, often sleeping until midday in soft beds. They spent their days in luxurious sloth: hunting, practicing sword fights for possible duels, eating ten course meals well into the night, engaging in promiscuous sexual relations, gambling, and partying until the daylight hours.

Others took overseas political positions as appointed colonial administrators. While a whole other group just sat around their massive estates, putting about their 50 room manor homes, while receiving taxes and rents from the farmers that labored on the aristo’s lands.

The aristocracy had no ties whatsoever to the land, nor did they even lift a hand to help maintain the fragile ecosystem. The landed aristocrats, or social parasites, simply collected legal extortion rackets from the hardworking farmers – similar to the Mafia bosses who collect protection money from businesses located in ‘safe urban neighborhoods.’ Royal authority sanctified the whole fraud scheme through the legal rights of private property.

Many Americans mistake the rights of private property for the rights of personal property. The rights of private property signified the rights of a family, or any corporate institution, including the State, to the complete ownership of lands, often with no historical use of the said lands.

These corporate institutions had given themselves the rights and legal privileges to open more lands due to conquest, family title, or mystical authority. This legal fraud virtually imprisoned the hard-working families who actually worked on the lands for survival.

Meanwhile, the owners collected the rents and taxes. The political-economic system containing such legal fictions allowed for the growth of Capitalism’s second stage, Mercantile Capitalism.

Mercantile Capitalism was simply a corrupt economic system where royal families favored particular merchants or venture capitalists who also had special access to funds from the royal treasuries.

Those capitalists could use those royal funds because the same royal families, and also their aristocratic cousins, and other social parasites, were always the first investors.

The investors also formed military grade institutions, called companies, which possessed greater legal rights than the poor individuals in the flunky courts. A few of these companies even controlled large naval armies and administered their own foreign colonies, such as the East Indies and West Indies Companies. What was their most profitable business during that epoch?

These companies made most of their heinous profits through world history’s most evil, mass kidnapping and mass murder spree, called the African slave trade, with the extermination fields of export crop plantations located in the Americas. Always remember, Europe’s mercantile class of royalties, aristo-parasites and class climbing miscreants managed and directed this nefarious trade.

Through the massive destruction of native and African lives, all of which led to the agricultural plantation production of cash crop-drugs, incinerator capitalism had birthed – and still this noxious scam of an economy fumigates across the Globe.

As capitalism invaded the peripheries of world Empires, this political-economic system rammed through a greater decomposition within the modern European family structure.

Family solidarity changed its particular terms and conditions. For any and all economic survival under savage capitalism, a brutal struggle ensued to grab as much inheritance capital as possible. Surviving family members could become mortal enemies to each other.

Nowadays, millions of other class climbers, in every corner of the Earth, have forsaken their honor in pursuit of cheap profits. They will murder, lie, cheat, steal and destroy everything in their path – all for the love of money – profits and even more profits. If all the other animals, plants, trees and arable land just dropped dead – those hungry ghost capitalists would continue their desperation for the next emerging markets.

Within any agricultural plantation production cycle, the most pressing issue was labor. The first sugar slave plantations in the Mediterranean used captured slaves from war booty. The European colonial powers in the Americas: Spain, Portugal, France, Britain, the Netherlands, and Denmark also utilized captured, native slaves from Conquest, and somewhat later, used indentured-convict white slaves from Europe. Those methods of overwork through death did not function well. The European mercantile elite’s only recourse revolved around the kidnapping rings, liquidation murders and mass enslavement of Africans.

As the great death of native nations continued, due to introduced European diseases throughout the Americas, European elite merchants had radically changed the human map. Most colonial American cities possessed small communities of European elites representing political hacks, soldiers, clergy and slave-owning planters, while the greater half of the population comprised racial lumpens, often of mixed native-white-African roots, and then a large mass of African slaves, freemen and mulattos.

From the 1580s-1780s, the false Euro-aristos in the colonial plantations resorted to the old and true method in maintaining social control over subject populations, Divisi et vincere, (Latin, Divide and Conquer).

The colonial elites gave a few token privileges to the Euro lower classes, such as weapon ownership, legal rights, with a new social identity, as whites. Meanwhile, the Africans entered the lowest social class, permanently associated with hated slavery. Using older zoological terms for agricultural cattle breeding, the European aristo-parasites created the Great Lie of Race.

This monstrous perjury incubated the culture of American colonialism, and in all irony, it returned to the European metropolis in the early twentieth-century, as Fascism, so political dictators could murder millions of more Europeans.

The European elites have left no part of our Earth untouched. On every continent, hordes of aristo-parasites have invaded, raped, tortured and murdered for profit. Still to this very day, those same elites proclaim to us the wonders of Christianity, Capitalism and Racialism. They have successfully exterminated entire categories of plants, trees, animals and other humans. They have been so triumphant in their wicked deeds that there is no turning back for our Earth. There is no hope for reconciliation.

European elites have solidified the concluding contract with Extinction. The Earth can never heal with any humans living upon it. All of us now possess the cultural mental infections from our recent past. Mass murder does have its price – extinction to extinction evermore.

Yet, the universe will eventually recycle the refuse again, so that other forms of life leading to death, can grow into their full substance.

Worlds of Pharmakopeia IV: Tobacco, Euro-Colonialism Murders another Native Plant

Posted: November 10, 2014 in absurdity, addictions, advertising, Africa, African slaves, agriculture, American colonialism, American plantation killing centers, American slavery, anti-smoking legislation, anti-tobacco coalitions, aristocratic lords, Asia, ATF, Atlantic Ocean, Black Gold, botany, Bresil, burning, cancers, cannabis, capital, capitalism, Caribbean Sea, chemical adulteration, chemical-industrial surgery, chemicals, chewing, Christian anti-smoking groups, cigarette packs, cigars, climate, coffee, colonial markets, colonial monopolies, colonial penetration, colonialism, commodities, commodity fetishes, contrabandists, coolness, corporate health care costs, corporate patents, corporate taxes, coughs, credit, crops, Cuba, cultivation, cultural activities, cultural associations, cultural life, cultural links, culture, death, drink, drugs, elite consumption, elites, emphysema, empire, empires, Euro-american civilization, Europe, European aristocrats, European civlization, European colonialism, European empires, European imperialism, European invaders, European monarchies, export commodities, factories, factory work, fashion, flora diversity, food, freedom, fumes, fuming poisons, gardens, genocide, gentlemen, Glasgow, habit, hatred, health, history, Hollywood, human condition under civilization, imperialism, imprisonment, Industrial Capitalism, inhalation-exhalation, intoxication, investors, Jamaica, kidnapping, kiosks, labor, landed estates, laws, leaves, legal crime, legal criminality, legal theft, manufacture, mass murder, media manipulation, medical experts, Mercantile Capitalism, metropolitan markets, Mexico City, missionaries, mode, monopolies, murder, natives, new women, newspapers, nicotine, official medicine, ownership, papers, pastes, penal slavery, pipes, plantation slavery, planters, plants, playing cards, power, private property rights, processing, production, profit, public education school administrators, publicity, puffing, punk musicians, rebellion, refinement, rock musicians, royal companies, royal monopolies, self-proclaimed owners, sensuality, Sevilla, sexual fetishes, shaving, shipping, slave owners, slavery, slaves, smoke, smokers, smoking, smoking breaks, smoking jackets, smoking parlors, snuff, social parasites, soil, sugar, tea, the Americas, the body, the modern State, the modern world, the State, tobacco, tobacco industry, tobacco lords, tobacco shops, transporting, urban life, US government war against tobacco, Virginia Tidewater Plantation, war, war against working class smokers, weight, weight control, women models, work, work to death, workers, world history
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Only in our evil, modern world do native flora varieties arouse such enduring hatreds.

There still exist the sick hatreds against cannabis sativa, psilocybe semilanceata, erythroxylum coca, and there is one plant that receives the coveted prize in pure hate, nicotiana tabacum.

What is so strange about this hatred is that this same plant was integrally important for European colonialism and industrial capitalism in world history. European and Euro-American civilizations could not have progressed as they did without the native american gift of tobacco plantations, working slave labor to death, and then, the tobacco processing, factory work, building even larger ships, international marketing and sophisticated advertising.

How did such an enjoyable American plant associated with native community peace, and smoked through pastes, leaves, hand-made pipes and even chewed, transform into such a European commodity fetish under global capitalism?

Nicotiana tabacum was once a naturally growing, medicinal and spiritual plant for America’s native nations. European colonial invaders, investors, and murderers transformed the plant into an export drug of commodity for elite consumption under the inexhaustible profit-making schemes of capitalism.

Columbus and his invading men did not just murder, imprison and sell native slaves on the island of Cuba during the 1490s. They also spotted some, ‘naked’ Carib natives smoking a herb placed in some leaves. The scent was quite intoxicating and the natives seemed to enjoy the community based smoke. They did not inhale, yet the effect of the plant was calming after they had eaten some fresh, delicious food, and the herb even had a sensual effect on the smokers. The European imperial-colonial invaders found another gift.

They stole the native plants from the Caribbean islands and transported them to Europe. The Europeans took a peculiar liking to them. In the 1500s, the Portuguese colonial invaders in the Americas, called Bresil, began to cultivate the native crop. It seemed to grow well in sub-tropical and tropical climates. When introduced into European aristocratic, social-parasite gardens inside of the great landed estates, tobacco plants sprouted quite well. Tobacco could also grow in mild, temperate, oceanic climates. The European elites were on to something.

During the seventeenth-century, some monarchs, political thugs and tyrants began to hate the plant. King James Stuart of England, Sultan Ammurath IV of Ottoman Turkey, and Czar Mikhail Romanov of Russia, represented some of the anti-tobacco elite crowd, while Pope Urban VIII actually had a papal bull written against the plant in the 1640s.

Yet the European colonial empires of Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands and Portugal had succumbed to the gods of capital. Each empire set up their own royal monopolies for the plant. The annoying question was where to grab the labor in order to work long hours in the hot sun: picking, drying, curing and transporting the leaves. The Europeans had made themselves the self-proclaimed owners of nicotine tabacum, so at first, they used local penal labor to work them to death in order to enrich the tobacco lords or planters. Where could one find a continual supply of slave labor?

An even greater economic windfall emerged through such an American cultivation – the theft of human chattel, or the kidnapping, murder, transporting and working to death of African slaves.

The Portuguese had first established their monopoly of the Blackened Brown Gold during the late sixteenth-century and early seventeenth-century, (about 1560-1660). Due to the importance of such American export plantation crops, such as tobacco, the English, Dutch, (the Netherlands), and the French established their own ‘African’ slave monopolies. A plant associated with community peace and enjoyment, took on the ominous tones of legal crime, kidnapping, imprisonment, mass murder, genocide and working people to death. Tobacco actually helped birth mercantile capitalism.

Mercantile Capitalism implied royal European controls of an export commodity, such as tobacco, sugar, coffee, tea, chocolate, salt and kidnapped African slaves, while it established permanent credit to slave plantation owners in order for them to purchase a continual supply of Africans and other penal slaves, (the European looking, or white ones). The American plantation-slave owners and European tobacco traders-ship investors made their profits through inflated price sales in the home or European metropolitan markets.

Meanwhile, European navies and missionaries tried to open greater markets for the American products in the Asian continents. Slowly, nicotine snuff and tobacco smoking had spread into the Islamic world culture, then Persia-Iran, the Indian sub-continent, Central Asia and ultimately into the Far East, China and even Japan.

In the eighteenth-century, the European tobacco manufacturers developed the smaller ‘cigarette’ varieties, and for those that preferred to chew, snuff boxes. All of this cigarette finery was for elite European consumption.

Elaborate, silver inlaid snuff boxes entered the world of fashion conscious, French aristocratic-parasite bums. In Britain, gentlemen established new cultural activities, fashions and spaces besides fencing, hunting, dances, card games, tea and reading – the smoking parlor with the smoking jacket.

A good tobacco smoke was always perfect after a good meal, with some intoxicating liquor or with some fine coffee. European grifters-Latin lovers, such as the Venetian, Giacomo Casanova, also took up the habit, and so tobacco grabbed some important cultural associations within European culture: sensuality, refinement, power and a coolness under pressure.

Most importantly, King Tobacco had changed the colonial-metropolitan relationships. The Scottish Tobacco Lords transformed the city of Glasgow into the premier tobacco import-export port. These same ‘lords’ would build their mini castles along Jamaica and Virginia Streets.

Those same streets had the infamous names of the most infernal, African slave killing centers in world history.

Virginia, once a colonial outpost of disease and hardship, had become the British Empire’s premier, tobacco plantation colony on the Tidewater during the 1700s. Is it any wonder that most of America’s revolutionary founders came from this proud plantation region made rich through the marvelous drug of tobacco?

During the same eighteenth-century, the Spanish colonial authorities had established the first urban factory for cigar-cigarette paper rolling and export packaging in Mexico City. Earlier, the Spanish had established the city of Seville as the premier processing center for cigars. For over a century in colonial Spanish America, and well before Metropolitan Europe, both men and women had been openly smoking tobacco cigarettes on the public streets. American fashion and prominence had come to Europe – mainly through the marvelous and medicinal herb of nicotiana tabacum.

Throughout the nineteenth-century, the 1800s, tobacco manufacturers had developed better technology in curing and rolling for three particular products: cigars, cigarettes, (blond and black versions), and chewable snuff.

The first tobacco companies consolidated themselves, while they competed with each other for the monopoly share of the smokers and chewers’ markets. This modern tobacco industry also encouraged the adulteration of tobacco through chemical engineering in order to hold their monopolies. Tobacco products even had molasses, rum, opium or honey mixed into the final product.

Tobacco eventually became part of modern, European and Euro-American cultural life. Royalty, lazy aristos, middle class-respectable clerks, and working class dock workers took up the smoking habit. The problem was that many of the men inhaled the nicotine fumes. Certain political-economic elites, Women Christian Temperance clubs and health workers noticed the persistent coughs of regular smokers. The modern anti-smoking movement had begun.

Meanwhile, tobacco shops and kiosks became one of the standard sights found on most city streets around the world, and where they also featured other items for sale, such as newspapers, books, shaving kits, pipes, rolling papers, pen knives, board games and playing cards.

In the twentieth-century, the 1900s, the tobacco industry transformed the world of advertising and mass marketing. A few tobacco monopolies had controlled the sale of ‘cigarette packs” and they made fortunes on the drug.

Smoking found associations with soldiers during World War I and for most wars afterwards. In the 1920s, cigarette companies targeted their advertising to the ‘new woman,’ thanks to the propaganda genius of the Austrian-American, Edward Bernays. Hollywood’s golden age featured most of their stars regularly smoking the sacred plant. Can anyone forget the famous pictures of Humphrey Bogart and James Dean without cigarettes dangling from their mouths?

While tobacco use seemed to sell exponentially – and especially in Asia, the anti-smoking forces mercilessly attacked the drug. Medical experts exposed the correlations between nicotine use and cancer, emphysema and other incurable maladies.

An anti-smoking coalition emerged. This motley prohibitionist group included family survivors of smokers who had died bad deaths, medical professionals, public education school administrators, and Christian religious groups,. Political-economic elites also joined their ranks, since they wanted better workers not taking so many smoking breaks, inclusive of less corporate health care costs.

Tobacco prohibitionists began to push for greater anti-smoking legislation. By the 1980s, they had succeeded in seizing the State.

In some urban cities in the United States, smoking is highly expensive, heavily taxed, and there are petty, minute federal, state and municipal laws that dictate where a person can or cannot smoke in public. Any street vendor trying to sell cheap cigarettes from another state, now has the felon tag of a ‘contrabandist,’ and can end up in prison or even have the cops murder him. The US government has a well-armed regulatory agency against tobacco, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or the ATF, and so the US government has declared another war – this time against tobacco.

Yet, millions of young women, and especially models, smoke tobacco in order to help them not gain weight. Rock artists, punk musicians and other fringe artists regularly flaunt the burning cigarette in the mouth while they play their guitars brutally. Even some right-wing political activists have proudly taken the puff. The cigarette has its own sexual fetishes, and due to the US government’s war against it, now has associations with rebellion and freedom.

The history of nicotiana tabacum shows us once again, the absurdity of the human condition under civilization. A plant that once helped natives in the Americas ensure community peace and unions through the spiritual worlds, has undergone a terrible and irreversible chemical-medical-industrial-state regulated surgery.

European colonial elites had imposed this condition. They did this without the consent of the native victims of their genocides. The addictive desires for naked profits enabled another genocide against kidnapped Africans.

Most assiduously, certain corporations have claimed their own patents or imposed ‘ownership,’ on this natural plant, while they have mixed harmful chemicals into the industrial melting pot, creating a type of fuming poison. Finally, the contemporary State, ruled and administered by shameless sociopaths, constantly devises sinister means in punishing the working class smokers of the drug.

Tobacco was never the original enemy to stamp out. The sinister legacies of our European colonial settler states, once again, carry all the historical blame.