Archive for the ‘Moctezuma II’ Category

Worlds of Pharmakopeia VII: Chocolate Delights, Slavery & Gluttony

Posted: December 1, 2015 in Africa, African Atlantic Slave trade, agricultural crops, American natural wonders, American slavery, aristo-parasites, aristocracy, artisan workshops, Asia, avarice, bad death, bitter taste, bons bons, cacao, cacao beans, cacao powder, cakes, candies, canella cinnamon, capitalism, capitalist production, carcinogens, chocolate, chocolate bars, chocolate beans, chocolate butter, chocolate capitalists, chocolatiers, coca, coffeehouses, colonialism, consumers, cookies, cooks, cuisine, cultural genocide, culture, currency, death, desserts, diabetes, digestives, drink of the gods, drinking rituals, drugs, elites, empires, erotica, European colonial empires, exotica, Flower Wars, food identity, food transformations, fruits, gastronomy, genetically modified ingredients, genocide, gluttony, gourmets, grinding, grinding process, Guinea, history, honey, hot cocoa, huitzilopochtli, human body, human civilization, Industrial Capitalism, inventions, Izcoatl, knights, leisure, luxury, mass murder, Mayan estates, Mercantile Capitalism, Mexica-Aztec Empire, milk chocolate, Moctezuma I, Moctezuma II, mole, murder, native garden delights, nuts, obesity, pastilles, pharmacopeia, physical senses, plantation killing centers, Portuguese Slave Trading Empire, pralines, production, products, Quetzalcoatl, royalty, rulers, slave export crops, slave trading, slavery, snacks, social classes, social estates, sugar, sweet chocolate, Switzerland, taxes, Tenochtitlan, the body, Theobroma Cacao, tlaloc, tlatloani, tobacco, trade, tribute, Triple Alliance, vanilla, vintage desserts, weight gain, Western Hemisphere, xocolatl
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Theobroma_cacao_treeCacaoXocolatl-Spicy-Aztec-Hot-Chocolatexocolatl_CodexNuttalChocolateria SpainGirls-On-Cocoa-Plantation-Trinidad-British-West-IndiesChocolate-house-london-c1708 - for aristos onlyCocoa-Child-LaborerParis-Pascal-Caffet-chocolatesChocolate capitalism and GMOs

In the strange, occult worlds of pharmacopeia, few drugs have escaped the repressive clutches of European sadists and madmen.

The reasons for non-prohibition often refer to a particular exotic drug’s negligible effects on the mind. If the drug causes havoc with the sinful body, and yet does not induce much of a mental change, then the elixir transforms into a good and marketable digestible. Such is the modern story of Chocolate, or as the Mexica-Aztecs referred to it, in their language of Nahuatl, Xocolatl.

The 1430s AD was a consequential decade for human civilization. In China, the Han Chinese, Ming Dynasty established a naval fleet in order to extend the economic influence of the Empire. Yet during the same period, agricultural disasters, famine and pestilence hit the Chinese rural valleys, and so the naval empire had to end. In Indochina, the Empire Ayutthaya, (modern Thailand or Siam), conquered the great empire of the Khmer at Angkor Wat (modern Cambodia).

In Europe, the religious wars and Crusades of the Catholic Papacy and Orthodox Christianity continued. First, they fought against the Muslim Turks, who surrounded the Second Rome, Constantinople, on both flanks, Asia Minor and Greece. The Teutonic knights maintained their violent forays into the northeast, against both Poland and Lithuania. The Catholic Holy Roman Emperor eventually defeated the Protestant Hussites, (influenced through Jan Hus), in the Czech lands.

In the southwest, the Spanish knights advanced their attacks against the Moors, or Muslims, in the region of Nasrid Granada. The Church continued its noxious insistence on the conversion of Europe’s Jews, whether through persuasion, legal harassment, or even the sword.

The French Royal forces began to push out the English Plantagenet royal armies from French territory, and a German, by the name of Johannes Gutenberg, developed the first printing press.

Italian artists finally moved away from the medieval, Byzantine-influenced figure painting of long faces and wide eyes, to more realistic portraits, using the ocular mirror-reflection method. The Venetian Empire possessed the most powerful naval army, and the most heinous slave trading, mass murder, sugar plantation system in the Mediterranean.

With the Pope’s mandate for the Christianization and enslavement of the pagans, the Portuguese Empire traded for gold in west Africa, and especially with the Mali Empire in Timbuktu. Due to this trade, this same Empire would later claim slave prisons and colonies on the western coast of sub-Saharan Africa, in a region referred to as Guinea. The Portuguese colonial navy initiated European Civilization’s most heinous mass murder scheme in human history: the Atlantic African Slave Trade. Europe’s invaders had yet to conquer the Western Hemisphere.

This decade also featured the political-military consolidation of the Mexica-Aztec Empire. The emperor, or Tlatloani, had the name of Izcoatl. Izcoatl was a great warrior and political leader who merged the military Triple Alliance of the three most powerful cities: Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan, in central Mexico.

He also oversaw the construction of the great buildings inside the grand city of Tenochtitlan. The two pyramid apexes represented: the God of Agriculture and Water, Tlaloc, and the greater structure, the God of the Mexica: war, blood and fire, Huitzilopochtli.

His successors would continue conquer lands for imperial tribute – until the unfortunate death of Moctezuma II, during the Spanish invasion of the 1520s. One of the coveted lands for tribute, or for taxes, were the southern Mayan farms of cacao beans. When grounded, those cacao beans transformed into a dark and powerful, yet delicious, bitter drink, called Xocolatl.

Towards the end of his glorious reign, Izcoatl ordered the priests to consecrate the temples for the grand sacrifices and coming religious festivals. The emperor and the noblemen drank Xocolatl in the courts of the palace. They sipped Xocolatl cold with ice, inside of large, dark red ceramic bowls. The cooks mixed in cornmeal to make the froth thicker. The royal preparers also added honey to soften the bitter taste, and then the local spices of red chilies, annatto red color, and canella cinnamon, all of which gave the icy Xocolatl the appearance of human blood.

The Aztec priests had their long black hair drenched in red blood dye. The Jaguar skinned and Eagle feathered knights were in attendance, and they were all in the presence of the feathered serpent-god, Izcoatl-Quetzalcoatl emperor.

All of them gulped the blood-colored, darkened froth, which transformed the participants into a mental state of rapture. They sat around a large and low stone table, and continued to taste the bowls of delight, meanwhile royal musicians played military drums and flutes, and the priests burned pungent copal incense. All of the six human senses flourished under this military reign.

Emperor Xocolatl’s body was the blood and oil to the mental states of war bounty, the delight of death, and sacrificial festivities.

Through these intense royal Mexica rituals, Moctezuma I, the successor of Izcoatl, initiated the Flower Wars. Aztec knights engaged in noble combat-contests with their enemies, such as the Tlaxcaltecans, in order to increase their military courage and fighting abilities. The great market of Tenochtitlan even used cacao beans as currency. Xocolatl had finally united, both in body and spirit, or tonalli, with the drink of the Gods.

Xocolatl, or its Latin name, Theobroma Cacao, like other Western Hemisphere wonders, such as tomatoes, corn maize, squashes-zucchinis-pumpkins, potatoes, red-green chili peppers-paprika, coca, tobacco, avocados, annatto, amaranth, peanuts-cashews-pecans-sunflower seeds, papaya-guava-pineapple, wild berries, common bean legumes, and vanilla, would permanently transform European cuisine – and even world gastronomy.

These Western Hemisphere native, garden delights now find themselves at every world table: the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. European colonialism has transformed Chocolate Cacao once again, and it has cut off its sacred origins from Mesoamerica.

The first methods represented the African killing centers or the Americas, or within its infamous slave plantations. Chocolate plantings coincided with tobacco, sugar and coffee crops, all of which functioned as export commodities on the Atlantic slave trade.

European investors would later add industrial concoctions into the chocolate mix, which gave the drug – from the once extinct Mesoamerican gods – a new identity. European food capitalists introduced the dark-thick cacao to ravenous sugar, silky cow’s milk, and the sweet tooth decadence of fruits and nuts.

Chocolate is not just a drink anymore; instead, consumers can purchase the drug in cakes, cookies, candies, bars, creamy spreads, chips, white and cream colors, powders while cooks have added it to fine dishes, such as the Mexican recipe of mole.

Chocolate has entered the fine drug Valhalla of vintage wines, sweet liqueurs, pungent tobacco cigars and expensive bottled spirits. This drug is also ubiquitous inside many processed GMO, sugary snacks, which destroy the fragile human body. For those gourmets of gluttony, the physical price leads to obesity and diabetes.

During the decade of the 1580s, in the Hispano-American lands, Spanish ecclesiastics and other elites began to partake in the leisurely enjoyment of the drink. In the seventeenth-century, the 1600s, Mercantile Capitalism exploded chocolate into the refined tastes and idle pleasures of European aristo parasites, representing the first two social estates, or classes, the nobles and the clergy.

Coffeehouses in London started to serve the hot chocolate brews, and in Paris, the first artisan workshops of chocolate emerged, calling themselves, chocolatiers. Those chocolate artisans sold a most expensive delight, called bons bons.

On the American continent, every single Euro-American colonial power: the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French and English ensured that their sugar, salt, coffee and tobacco slave plantations, had to leave a few grounds for the cultivation of chocolate beans. The European colonial monsters gave the African slaves more work to perform before their short, brutal lives, and even more cruel deaths.

Like Sugar and Coffee export commodities, Chocolate production also violated the horrible existences of kidnapped African chattel. The European aristo rage for hot chocolate, or hot cocoa, and exquisite chocolate candies, called pastilles, would not subside.

In the eighteenth-century, the 1700s, Europeans became so enamored with chocolate that inventors developed mechanisms in quickening the pulverization of beans into cocoa powder. The French and the English became quite adept at this grinding process. Thanks to the such technology, the European working classes began to partake in the ‘drink of the Gods.’

It was during the 1800s, in Europe and the Americas, and especially in Switzerland, where chocolate factories invented industrial schemes that transformed chocolate to the consumer product of today.

First, they used machines to remove the chocolate butter from both the beans and powder during the grinding down process. Second, the factories added sugars, fatty nuts, and whole white milk into the mix, all of which created a finer, creamier and more delicious chocolate, free from its bitter origins. Third, they created assembly lines that formed the butter, powder, sugar, nuts and milk into bite sized candies, called pralines.

Some of the more notable names of the European-American Chocolate capitalists included: Stollwerck, Berwaerts, Cadbury, Ghiradelli, Lindt, Tobler, Hershey and Nestle. All social classes enjoyed the chewing, eating and drinking of chocolate.

Nowadays, most of the worlds’ chocolate bean production occurs in west Africa. Apparently, the chocolate capitalists still treat and pay their workers like slaves.

Chocolate still lives among our innumerable products on the supermarket shelves, yet massive food corporations combine it with high amounts of sugar, and then mix it all with horrid GMOs, or genetically modified products. All of those carcinogens destroy the delicate human body. Chocolate is still delicious, yet it eventually leads to gluttony, fast weight gain, and if abused, obesity.

Chocolate was once the food of the gods – found in the secret halls of Mayan and Aztec royalty. Later in history, European colonials invaded the Americas, destroyed their grand cultures, and stole their wondrous products.

European mercantile capitalism then murdered millions of Africans in order to process American plants, inclusive of the other European addictions, such as sugar cane, coffee beans and tobacco leaves. Ultimately, European technology transformed Chocolate through the processes of industrial capitalism, so that it is extremely rich and tasty. This process will also destroy the tenuous human body.

In fin, the Chocolate drug, with its sordid history, exposes Modern European Civilization’s profound culture of avarice, luxury and gluttony.

 

 

Anarcho-Historian Lesson #7: Actual-Real History versus Crap History

Posted: April 6, 2014 in Amerikan Empire, Amerikan school system, Anarchists, authority, bad education, capitalism, Cholula pyramid temple massacre, civil war, class war, cocolitzli, community, conquistadors, conspiratorial groups, contradictory, control, corporate media, cover-ups, crap history, crime, criminals, Cuitlahuatzin, cultural references, cultural values, culture, Demographic Disaster, diverse historical perspectives, educational formation, ego-self, elites, empire, epidemics, ethnic groups, eye of discernment, first person accounts, forced coercive schooling, generals, hegemony, Hernan Cortes, heroism, hierarchy, historians, historical archives, historical profession, historical research, history, human complexity, human condition under civilization, ideological supports, Inca Empire, indoctrination, intellectuals, invading army, labor historians, legal violence, legitimacy, liars, manipulation, massacres, media manipulation, Mexica-Aztec Empire, Mexico, microbiological history, mind control, Moctezuma II, murder, murder victims, museum displays, mythologies, narco-terrorism, official history, official states, official wars, past experiences, plagues, practice, presidents, professors, propaganda, pseudo-expert historians, ranters, real-actual history, rebellions, regions, resistance, revolutionaries, rule, school system, school textbooks, Siege of Tenochtitlan, smallpox outbreaks, social control, Spanish Empire, state apparatus, state mythologies, teachers, Tenochtitlan, terrorists, The Great Death, the public, the rich and the powerful, the State, Tlaxcalan allies, traditions, Truths of History, TV propaganda, United States Government, universities, US Civil War, vagabonds, valor, violence, War of Northern Aggression, wars, working class
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Aztec account of Siege of TenochtitlanSpanish account of Siege of TenochtitlanBubonic plague EuropeAztec_smallpox_victimsMexican version of American invasionAmerican version of Mexican War

October 1519 was a dangerous month for living in central Mexico. A new invading army with metal plated chest armor, leather boots, helmets, pikes, swords, horses, and a few firearms were on the march – literally. These hundreds of foreign speaking men smelled real bad and a good amount of the men sported beards, which clustered stale food droppings mixed with dried mucus. They were a sick sight to behold.

An even sicker sight was a strange disease never seen before, which had already wiped out whole villages on the Caribbean coast. Thick red and black bulbs grew on the outside of the body and then the human form would rot from the inside out!

Accompanying these rancid bearded men, thousands of Tlaxcalan warriors marched ready to do some damage to their old enemies, the Aztec-Mexican Empire. Spanish conquistadors acted with discernment when encountering advanced civilizations, (meaning urban societies), during their invasions. They first acknowledged the main empire to fight, and then they made alliances with their enemies in order to destroy them. Only twenty years later, they would use the same tactics against the Inca Empire in Peru.

The Spanish had already destroyed some of the crack Aztec warriors within the pyramid of Cholula. The Spanish warriors would soon enter Tenochtitlan, the capital city, and take Moctezuma II hostage. Eventually, the Aztec-Mexica warriors counterattacked in the capital city, and they almost exterminated the Spanish with their Tlaxcalan allies. But the Spanish-Tlaxcalan alliance won the final war in August, 1521. This ad-hoc alliance finally destroyed the Aztec-Mexica empire centered in Tenochtitlan. But there was another invading force that gave the new invaders a special edge.

What truly destroyed the Mexica-Aztec capital was a strange outbreak, never experienced beforehand in central Mexico, called ‘cocolitzli,’ or smallpox, which burst forth in the year 1520. An outbreak had ultimately hit the capital that same year, and it had killed the very emperor himself, Cuitlahuatzin. The epidemic spread all over central Mexico, which of course, made ‘the conquest,’ so much easier. Even the Spanish allies, the Tlaxcalans, experienced its ravages.

A hundred years later, from August 1521, 90 % of the indigenous population of central Mexico would die terribly due to recurring plagues and epidemic outbreaks. The Conquest owed a lot more to micro-biological history than to the genius of Cortes, or even due to the thousands of Tlaxcalan warriors that had increased Cortes’ military forces up towards 8,000 troops.

Yet, crap history accounts continue to rant about the military brilliance of Hernan Cortes, or the invincibility of the Spanish knight-conquistadors, or the funniest account of all, that the Mexica-Aztecs, especially Emperor Moctezuma II, thought that the Spanish were gods. All of these accounts are lies, legends and represent crap history.

How does the discerning historian spot the crap history, or the excrement, from the real and actual history?

Crap history accounts always resort to easy one line reasons for historical acts.

All of those crap accounts are lies because we humans, under the human condition of civilization, are too complex for easy one liners. Looking outside the window at the world around us, we see the incredible complexity that represents the living humanity moving in and out of the urban streets. Since the birth of human civilization, humans have had this human complexity. True history always shows the intricacies that lie behind the incredible acts of human violence.

Crap history also has a particular and very open agenda. It is often found within the pages of state college and public school textbooks, corporate media hype broadcasts, boring history teacher lectures and in museum displays. There is an old saying that the winners write the history books. This is true.

After the Spanish imperial invasions in the Americas, Spanish conquistadors did recount their great ‘heroism and valor.’ But their accounts are often annotated with ego rants and descriptions that defy ordinary beliefs. Their hodgepodge of historical offerings are actually quite hard to read, and few historians use Cortes’ own ‘incredible account,’ for historical research.

The same historical problem also relates to the winners codifying and arranging their writings in archives and in libraries, so that later historians would have easier access to their works. A bad historian will simply read their works and recopy the garbage found in their notes. A good historian however, will reread their writings and then look for particular themes that pop out between the lines. The well-trained historian reads with the discerning eye, while the crap historian reads as a copyist – and then writes a pathetic book or article that most people don’t care to read anyway.

Unfortunately, the historical profession still suffers from the infection of crap history and crap historians. But there is a solution.

Anyone can do the art of reading and write real and actual history. All it takes is the eye of discernment. While reading an ancient text, the historian ought to ask his or herself a few questions: why is the author writing this work, who is the intended audience, how does the author put the work in order, and what was the historical context of the work? We all have our own agendas – and so did our forbears in human history. The official history of United States is a perfect example of the recurring plague of crap history.

The official and standard, crap Amerikan history only lists the official wars of the United States government against other official states, such as Britain, France, Mexico, Spain, Germany, Korea, China, Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. It is also gives a special section on the Civil War.

The real and actual history however includes the US govt.’s continual wars of extermination against the Native nations on the continent, the war against the Mormon religion, the Civil War-War of Northern Aggression, the war against crime or against African-Americans, the war against Asian aliens, the war against ‘illegal’ drugs or against young people of color, the war against alcohol or Prohibition, the war against Terrorism, or against Islam, the war against Narco-terrorism-Latino drug cartels, the war against obscenity, the war against International Communism, or the Cold War, the war against illegal immigration, the war against the poor-lumpen proletariat that have no work skills, the war against drunk drivers, etcetera.

The official and standard crap Amerikan history prefers the points of view of presidents, generals, the rich and the powerful. It often praises both their acts of greatness and crimes; while it never offers the perspectives of their unfortunate victims. Crap history acts if the rich and the powerful represent the entire country, culture and society! Obviously, the upper classes don’t live like the rest of us.

The real and actual history includes the perspectives, thoughts, writings and actions of a whole diverse group of historical players: the homeless vagabond, the construction worker-laborer, the skilled mechanic-artisan, the sick and dying in the hospitals, the feisty small business owner-merchant, and the prisoner locked away in some prison-dungeon. Their views matter because they had the gift of human life and lived during a certain historical epoch. What they did with their lives was their business, and often due to birth, they had no other choices open to them.

Again, the complexity of human history comes into play. Even within a particular regional culture, the local humans have represented diverse backgrounds, such as familial relations, ethnic histories, work experiences, and educational formations. All of these elements, and even more that I haven’t listed in this paragraph, construct an individual’s cultural frames.

We frequently live our lives on dysfunctional remote control containing jumbled past experiences, contradictory cultural references and mental juggling acts. We the people under the condition of civilization are complex and all too human.

The Anarchist revolutionary must also act as a historian. He or she understands the truth of this human condition. Any time we hear some mad ranter or pseudo-expert historian ramble about the simple and easy answer to any current problem in society, then we need to either ignore the screamer, or if it is within a private setting, then rebuke the foolish discourse.

We clean our asses after excreting the feces. Our lifetimes are too short for tolerating anymore crap history.